Charles V and Universal Monarchy: 1519-1555
- 1520-1566: Suleiman the Magnificent is Sultan of TurkeyOttoman Empire Chronology
- 1521: Martin Luther is condemned at the Diet of WormsReformation Chronology
- 1524-1525: Peasants Revolt in Germany
- 1515: Battle of Pavia: Charles V controls Italy.
- 1526: Battle of Mohacs.
- 1529: First siege of Vienna by the Ottoman Turks.
- 1532: Pizarro leads an expedition to Peru.
- 1534: Ignatius Loyola founds the Jesuit order. Cataholic Reformation Chronology.
- Act of Supremacy recognizes the king as the supreme head of the Church in England.
- 1544: Silver is discovered at Potosi in Peru.
- 1545: Truce of Adrianople between the Hapsburgs and Suleiman I.
- 1546-1547: Schmalkaldic War between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League of German princes.
- 1555: Peace of Augsburg Wars of Religion Chronology
Philip II and the Defense of Catholicism: 1556-1598
- 1564: Council of Trent ends.
- 1565: Spanish take Philippines and establish city of Manila.
- 1568: The Revolt of the Netherlands Begins.
- 1571: Battle of Lepanto.
- 1572: Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
- 1582: Gregorian Calendar adopted.
- 1588: Defeat of the Spanish Armada
- 1598: Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes.