The Italian City-States: 1385-1535
- 1385-1402: Reign of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan.
- 1404-1414: Reign of Ladislas of Durazzo, King of Naples.
- 1434: Cosimo de'Medici comes to power in Florence.
- 1450: Francesco Sforza becomes Duke of Milan.
- 1469: Lorenzo de' Medici, called "The Magnificent," comes to power in Florence.
- 1494: France invades Italy
- 1502: Spain conquers Naples.
- 1513: Machiavelli writes "The Prince"
- 1530: The Medici are returned to power in Florence.
- 1535: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V occupies Milan.