- 1543: Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) publishes De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, which argues that the Sun is the center of the Solar System.
- 1543: Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564) publishes Concerning the Structure of the Human Body, the first modern anatomical text.
- 1600: William Gilbert (1540-1603) publishes Concerning the Magnet.
- 1605: Francis Bacon (1561-1626) publishes Advancement of Learning.
- 1609: Astronomia Nova is published by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), in which he presented his first two Laws of Planetary Motion.
- 1610: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) publishes Sidereal Messenger, describing his observations using the telescope.
- 1619: Kepler publishes his Third Law in Harmonia Mundi.
- 1628: William Harvey (1578-1657) publishes On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals, in which he proves that the heart circulates blood throughout the body.
- 1632: Galileo publishes Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which he compares the Copernican and Ptolemaic solar systems.
- 1637: Rene Descartes publishes his Discourse on Method, in which he lays the foundation for modern philosophy.
- 1644-9: Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), in a series of works, revives the traditions of Epicureanism and Skepticism.
- 1660: Robert Boyle (1627-1691) publishes New Experiments Physico-Mechanical Touching the Spring of the Air, in which he states his laws of gases.
- 1662: The Royal Society of London is founded.
- 1666: The French Academy of Science is founded.
- 1677: Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), using a microscope, discovers male spermatoza.
- 1678: Christian Huygens (1629-1695) proposes the wave theory of light.
- 1687: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes his Principia Mathematica.
- 1704: Isaac Newton publishes his Optics.
- 1735: Carolus Linnaeus publishes his Systema Naturae, which establishes the science of taxonomy.
- 1789: Antoine Lavoisier publishes his treatise on chemistry, laying the foundation for the modern theory of chemical elements.